Uncovering your Native American heritage through family stories and legends can be a meaningful and empowering experience. But it’s important to know and understand the cultural context in which these stories are told.
Researching Native American ancestry can require access to many different types of records. These records come from various record jurisdictions, including tribal enrollment, state archives and libraries, and the National Archives and its regional archives.
1. Identifying Your Native American Ancestors
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Many families have stories or traditions that include a Native American ancestor. Some want to prove this ancestry for reasons such as tribal enrollment, while others want to know more about their family history. Regardless of the reason, the same research methods are required to identify a lineal ancestor as would be used in any genealogy study.
An excellent place to begin is with current and historical records that belong to you or your immediate biological family, such as letters, diaries, scrapbooks, photograph albums, etc. These can provide clues to the name of a possible Native ancestor, their tribe, and their location.
You can also try a genetic DNA test to learn more about your Native heritage. However, it is essential to note that these tests can only provide a general idea of what region of the United States your ancestors may have come from. They cannot tell you what specific tribe, band, or nation your ancestors were a part of.
In addition to the information you can obtain from your personal and family collections, several online resources, record collections, and specialized libraries contain information on Native American genealogical studies. They have several heirship case files that can be very helpful.
2. Identifying the Tribe or Nation to Which Your Ancestors Belonged
If you know the name of a Native American ancestor and can establish an ancestral connection to that person through vital statistics records, they may be eligible for tribal enrollment. Determining an ancestor’s tribe requires diligent research, including the study of maps and atlases that identify the location of indigenous peoples in a region.
It also includes the analysis of treaties and annuity rolls, which are lists of goods and money that the federal government paid to individual Indians in fulfillment of treaties or responses to applications for assistance.
Local libraries and historical societies are the best place to start. Many have extensive collections of local genealogy and family history books and periodicals that can be used to find information on a local basis.
They are also good places to see a list of local or regional tribes that existed at the time of an ancestor’s residence. In addition, they can provide contact information for a local or state tribal liaison to help you identify what records are available. A good approach is to begin your research with the tribe to which an ancestor belonged and work backward.
This method allows you to search the most available sources and helps you avoid making assumptions based on limited knowledge of the past. If an ancestor is known to have belonged to more than one tribe, it is also essential to understand the migration patterns of that tribe, especially when “removed” to a new locality.
For example, the Cherokee were forced to relocate from their traditional lands in the Southeast to Indian Territory (Oklahoma today) on the so-called Trail of Tears.
3. Identifying Records to Which Your Ancestors Belong
Many families have traditions of Native American ancestry, but it is not always easy to prove these stories. Regardless, sound genealogical practice requires that a researcher build the family tree relationship by relationship, event by event, until an ancestor is reliably identified as Native American.
The most effective approach is to locate the tribe with which an ancestor was associated. This is usually achieved by identifying a place of residence, a specific Bureau of Indian Affairs agency or reservation, and then studying the records related to that area. This can be done by analyzing various resources, including census records, treaty and annuity rolls, schools, and military and religious documents.
If a tribe is known, genealogy websites can be used to find additional information. These websites focus on a particular tribe, connect to tribe-specific resources, and allow researchers to search for tribal membership applications.
Additionally, family members with solid knowledge of an ancestor’s tribe can often provide valuable information and may even have access to personal documents. Likewise, local libraries and historical societies can also be a good source of research help.
4. Identifying Books and Documents to Which Your Ancestors Belong
To fully understand your Native American ancestors, you must understand their historical context. This knowledge will ground your research in the proper period, allow you to identify a more defined geographic area in which to search, maximize all potential record possibilities, and help you establish tribal affiliations more easily.
One way to do this is by compiling oral history from family members and carefully cross-referencing with your established genealogy and DNA trees. Another is using online resources, including Indian census rolls, school records, annuity and allotment, treaties, and removal records.